Biodynamic，the Realm of Voodoo Science
One of the last series of lectures that the Austrian philosopher Rudolph Steiner gave in 1924 was to a group of German farmers. They were worried about the effects on their land, livestock and crops resulting from the use of chemical fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides.
Those eight lectures Steiner delivered at a conference in Koberwitz, a year before his death, formed the basis of what we know today as the biodynamic movement. His thesis was that farmers must return to pre-industrial methods to grow their crops and tend their soil. A return to peasant farming, as it were. Farmers, advised Steiner, should adjust their activities to the rhythms of Nature and become aware of the cycles of the moon and planets and their link to the health of all living things on earth. ‘In Nature,’ he wrote, ‘and actually throughout the universe, everything is in mutual interaction with everything else. In this materialistic age of ours, we follow up only on the coarser kinds of interplay…’
The aim of biodynamics, as Steiner expressed it, is to create a healthy soil ecosystem by choosing to use natural compost over chemical products and to plant and harvest by the phases of the moon. Organic farming just shuns chemical products while biodynamic growing takes a more holistic approach, treating the soil itself as a living organism.
No sector has embraced Steiner’s vision more enthusiastically than the wine industry. By 2011 (the latest figures available) some 642,000 acres of wines worldwide were cultivated according to organic farming regulations. While this is a mere 4 per cent of global grape-growing, the increase in organically-managed vineyards since 2004 has been three-fold, which suggest even more growth in the future. The largest vineyard surfaces farmed organically are in Spain, France and Italy. Soon China will join the list.
It is Steiner’s concept of composting that makes non-believers roll their eyes. He devised plant-based sprays against infections that are made up of composted material found around the farm. The compost is diluted with water to make a kind of herbal tea. But here’s where we enter the realm of voodoo science: the compost’s effectiveness is enhanced by the addition of fresh cow manure that has been packed into a cow’s horn and buried in the vineyard at the fall equinox and dug up in the spring. The fermented material from the cow’s horn is then mixed with water and sprayed over the vineyard. The recipe is one hornful per hectare (2.47 acres). Steiner explained it this way: ‘…by burying the cow horn with the manure in it, we preserve in the horn the etheric and astral forces that the horn was accustomed to reflect when it was on the cow. Because the cow horn is now outwardly surrounded by the Earth, all the Earth’s etherizing and astralizing rays stream into its inner cavity.’ The result is the fermented manure is transformed into ‘an extremely concentrated, enlivening and fertilizing force.’ Cue the eye rolling.
The question is, of course, does biodynamics work? Does it make for a more balanced vineyard and for wines that taste better than those that have been produced using chemical products? In February of this year I attended Millesime Bio in Montpellier, France. In three hangar-like halls, 800 biodynamic and organic wineries were showing their products. One of the wineries was Domaine Cazes of Rivesaltes in the Languedoc-Roussillon. The proprietor, Emanuel Cazes, toured me around his vineyard and showed me the constituents of the ‘tea’ he sprays over his vineyard soil – nettles, horsetail and willow leaves which he steeped in boiling water and mixed with the cow dung. Other producers, he told me, use yarrow, chamomile, oak bark, dandelion and valerian - all of which were prescribed by Rudolph Steiner. Cazes says that after fifteen years of practicing biodynamic farming the pH of his wines is lower (pH is the measure of the degree of relative acidity as opposed to the relative alkalinity of any liquid. It’s measured from 0 to 14, with 7 being neutral and 2 being lemon juice. Wines with a low pH - between 3 and 3.4 - will taste tart and crisp). And as a result of the application of the sprays, the roots of Cazes’ vines, he says, are deeper which means he is able to extract more trace minerals from the soil, making for more complex flavours in his wines.
当然，问题是，生物动力法有用吗？生物动力法是否有助于葡萄园的生态环境变得更平衡？生物动力法酿造的酒是否比在种植中使用了化学物品酿造出来的酒更好喝？在今年2月，我参加了在法国蒙彼利埃（Montpellier）举办的有机葡萄酒展览会（Millesime Bio）。三个犹如飞机库那么大的展览厅里，有800多家使用生物动力法和有机种植法的酒厂在展出他们的产品。其中有一家来自法国南部朗格多克·鲁西荣的酒庄，叫Domaine Cazes of Rivesaltes，庄主Emanuel Cazes带我参观了他的葡萄园，并向我展示了他制做的喷酒在葡萄园里的“草本茶”的成分，有荨麻、马尾草、柳树叶。他把这些成分浸泡在在煮开的水里，然后和牛粪混合在一起。Emanuel Cazes告诉我说，有些酿酒商则使用蓍草、洋甘菊、栎树皮、蒲公英、缬草，所有这些都是由鲁道夫·斯坦纳开出的方子。Cazes说，经过15年的生物动力法种植实践之后，他酿造出来的酒的PH值变得更低了。（备注：PH值是用来衡量相对酸度值，与溶液的相对碱度形成对比。PH值的测量值在0-14之间，7表示中性，柠檬汁的PH值是2。PH值在3-3.4之间的葡萄酒喝起来酸度明显，新鲜爽脆。）Cazes说，使用了这些“草本茶”喷洒葡萄园之后，他的葡萄藤的根扎得更深了，这表示葡萄藤可以从土壤里萃取更多的矿物质元素，从而使得葡萄酒的风味更加复杂。
Certainly, the concept of biodynamics is in sync with our contemporary concern with the environment as well as the romantic notion of a return to a simpler way of farming. But if you put two glasses of wine in front of me – one made without recourse to sulphur products, and one made the ‘traditional’ way – I don’t think I could tell the difference. Yet for all its hocus-pocus I would like to think that biodynamic winemaking works. And for producers who want to convert their vineyards to biodynamic, it takes three years to get certification, as long as the wind doesn’t carry chemical sprays from your neighbour’s farm. From then on it’s a leap of faith.